email@example.com Continuously updated all day, every day!
- Full Report: Garcia-Gallo
- Western Alliance 14: Full Report
- Results from South Korea
- TUF Latin America - Episode 2 Preview
- Broner back in action Saturday
- Leo Santa Cruz is preparing for Roman; but is ready for anyone
- Frampton says he "can see the hate in Martinez' eyes"
- WBF Executive Board Meeting Notes
- Boxing Buzz
- Boxing Buzz
- Szili stops Zemski for UBF belt
Tonight at the House of Blues in Boston, super featherweight Tevin Farmer (15-4-1, 3 KOs) will be in the main event when he takes on undefeated Emanuel Gonzalez (14-0, 7 KOs) in a 10-round fight that will headline a card that is promoted by Golden Boy Promotions and will be televised live on Fox Sports 1. Farmer has been on a a roll as he has won eight consecutive fights since hooking up with Mark Cipparone and Club 1957 Management. This fight, Farmer will be in a much better position to win then the last time he was seen on national television when he was stopped in eight rounds by Jose Pedraza. At that point of his career, Farmer was treating his career as a journeyman by taking fights on short notice. In fact, he took the Pedraza fight on a few days and did not have the adequate recuperation for the former amateur star from Puerto Rico. (more…)
Will the Golden Boy shake-up affect the long-awaited Pacquiao-Floyd fight? More
Ode to Gary “Chubs” Pliner and the Chub’s Boxing Gym. More
“Stay away from Pacquiao,” is the advice Juan Manual Marquez is getting. More
Carl Frampton to fight for world title in Belfast. More
In a big upset, Venezuelan welterweight puncher Charlie Navarro (24-7, 18 KOs) stopped previously unbeaten WBC #7 rated Panamanian Alberto “Metralleta” Mosquera (21-1-2, 14 KOs) at 0:23 of the ninth round on the main event of an exciting card presented by Promociones del Istmo at Hotel RIU Plaza in Panama City, Panama. Two of the judges had Navarro ahead by two points after eight rounds and the other one had the fight even. At the beginning of round nine, Navarro hit Mosqueras’ right eye with a powerful left hook which affected his vision, forcing him to back off. The Venezuelan attacked with combinations until the defending champion fell in his own corner for the final count. After the fight, the new WBC FECARBOX welterweight titlist received a challenge from Panamanian Miguel Callist for a third and definitive clash between them.
Former WBA lightweight champion Brandon Rios (31-2, 23 KOs) just announced on his Facebook place that his comeback fight will be against former WBA interim welterweight titleholder Diego Chaves (23-1, 19 KOs) on August 2 in Las Vegas.
Statement of Oscar De La Hoya: Golden Boy Promotions is moving ahead on all fronts. We look forward to continuing and expanding our key position in the boxing world and to providing the public with the very best the sport has to offer.
Story and photos by Phil Doherty
The Mayweather family surname is synonymous with elite-level boxing. Floyd Mayweather Jr. is universally acknowledged as the best pound-for-pounder in the sport and his father is one of the most sought-after trainers.
Truth-be-told, they also give some pretty entertaining press conference quotes as Floyd Sr. demonstrated for this afternoon’s final press conference for Saturday night’s “Final Knockouts” card from Casino Miami Jai Alai.
The six-bout card caps the inaugural season of NuvoTV’s “Knockout” boxing reality show starring Mayweather Sr., Ruben Guerrero and Yoel Judah—all fathers and trainers of some pretty accomplished pro fighters. For this series (the brainchild of Steven Marcano and NuvoTV’s executive VP of programming, Rene Aguirre) the trainers try their luck with some down-on their-luck fighters in an elimination-style tournament. (more…)
Photos: Emily Harney
Emanuel Gonzalez 130 vs. Tevin Farmer 129
Alexis Santos 223 vs. Daniel Martz 255
Jamie Kavanagh 135 vs. Michael Clark 135
Danny Kelly 242 vs. Eric Newell 265
Mark DeLuca 160 vs. Dustin Caplinger 165
Gary O’Sullivan 164 vs. Jose Medina 164.5
Lamont Roach 133 vs. Miguel Rodriguez 134
Venue: House of Blues, Boston, Massachusetts
Promoter: Golden Boy
TV: Fox Sports 1
FREDDIE ROACH: “Winning this fight will be bout ring generalship. Miguel must keep himself in good position and control the ring. This is what we have worked on for nine weeks in training camp. Miguel never knew how to do this before we began working on it. Miguel will have to cut the ring off, stay off the ropes and stay out of the corners. He now knows how to do it. He is a great student and one of the most disciplined fighters I have ever trained. Sergio is in over his head on this one. We worked on fighting southpaws and have it down to a science now. Miguel will have no trouble with Sergio’s style. Working opposite Miguel with Manny Pacquiao gave me great insight to Miguel’s flaws. It taught me his weaknesses and during this camp I was able to eliminate them. The wear and tear of the Julio Cesar Chavez Jr fight ruined Martinez. He has nothing left. Miguel is the fresher fighter.” (more…)
By Gabriel F. Cordero
IBF super bantamweight world champion Kiko “La Sensacion” Martinez (31-4, 23 KOs) will his crown against the star prospect Carl Frampton (18-0, 13 KOs) on September 6 at a venue to be named in Northern Ireland. Frampton previously defeated Martínez by 9th round TKO in February 2013 in Belfast. “For me this is a greater motivation than the possibility of unifying belts,” said Martinez. “I will never forget and I want to prove that the defeat was just a bad day.”
Below is the running order of bouts for Saturday’s big boxing event at Madison Square Garden. The first bell is at 6:10PM local time, with the pay-per-view telecast commencing at 9PM ET, 6PM PT.
Jantony Ortiz (0-0) vs. Elio Ruiz (1-4, 0 KOs), flyweights
Willie Nelson (21-1-1, 12 KOs) vs. Darryl Cunningham (29-6, 11 KOs), super welterweights
Jose Pedraza (16-0, 10 KOs) vs. Arturo Uruzquieta (15-5, 6 KOs), super featherweights
Jose Lopez (12-0, 10 KOs) vs. Raul Hidalgo (21-10, 16 KOs), super bantamweights
Felix Verdejo (12-0, 9 KOs) vs. Engelberto Valenzuela (9-1, 3 KOs), lightweights
Andy Lee (32-2, 22 KOs) vs. John Jackson (18-1, 15 KOs), super welterweights
Jorge Melendez (28-3-1, 26 KOs) vs. Javier Maciel (28-3, 20 KOs), super welterweights
Wilfredo Vazquez Jr. (23-3-1, 19 KOs) vs. Marvin Sonsona (18-1-1, 15 KOs), featherweights
Sergio Martines (51-2-2, 28 KOs) vs. Miguel Cotto (38-4, 31 KOs), WBC middleweight championship
By Gary “Digital” Williams
A number of boxers from the Washington, DC area will be on the road this week in some interesting scheduled bouts. Here is the rundown.
DC heavyweight Danny “Smooth” Kelly and Upper Marlboro, MD lightweight Lamont Roach, Jr. will be on a card at the House of Blues in Boston, MA on Thursday, June 5. Kelly (5-0-1, four KO’s) will face Eric Newell of Bethlehem, PA (7-2-2, five KO’s) in a six-round encounter while Roach (1-0) faces Miguel Rodriguez of Mexico (1-6) in a four-round bout.
On Friday, June 6, DC heavyweight Tony “The Tiger” Thompson (39-4, 26 KO’s) travels to the Palais des Sport Marcel Cerdan, Levallois-Perret, Hauts-de-Seine in France for a 12-round contest against Carlos Takam (29-1-1, 23 KO’s) of France for the vacant WBC Silver Heavyweight title. (more…)
Photos: Chris Farina/Top Rank
Three-division world champion Miguel Cotto and WBC middleweight champion Sergio “Maravilla” Martinez hosted their final press conference Wednesday to talk about their eagerly-anticipated PPV world title collision taking place on Saturday night at the “Mecca of Boxing” Madison Square Garden in New York City.
Sergio Martinez: I come prepared. I come to box. I come to fight. I come to be in a war. On Saturday we’ll finish the talking and see the reality.
Miguel Cotto: I’m prepared for a war. It’s good for us to hear Sergio is ready for a war too, because that’s what people are gonna see. A real war.
Martinez trainer Pablo Sarmiento: I’m sorry Freddie, but for the second time in a row, you’ll be 0-2 (against Sergio Martinez).
Cotto trainer Freddie Roach: Miguel is the most disciplined fighter that I have ever trained…I’d like to wish Martinez good luck, he’s gonna need it.
Celebrate Fourth of July underneath the Viva Vision canopy with UFC International Fight Week™ and Fremont Street Experience’s Rock of Vegas summer concert series featuring rockers Papa Roach, P.O.D. and Lit. Downtown Las Vegas gets in on the UFC International Fight Week action as several events takeover the Fremont Street Experience including an Ulti-man™ 5k run, meet-and-greets and autograph signings with UFC® fighters and Octagon Girls® and a special concert. (more…)
Welterweights Emmanuel “Ice Cold” Lartey (15-2-1, 7 KOs) and former IBF super featherweight champion Stevie “Two Pound” Forbes (35-12, 11 KOs) headline Halquist Productions’ Battle at the Boat 96 card on Saturday night at the Emerald Queen Casino in Tacoma, WA.
Six undercard fights will feature Northwest boxing talent.
Jeremy McCleary (3-0) vs. Napoleon Mathews (1-3, 1 KO) at 128 Lbs.
Cameron Sevilla-Rivera (3-0, 3 KOs) vs. Daryl Gardner (1-2, 1 KO) at 160 Lbs.
Kolt Thompson (pro debut) vs. Mike Hayes (pro debut) at Heavyweight
Ricardo Maldonado (3-0) vs. Manuel Mandez (2-1-1) at 136 Lbs.
Harrison Bevens (1-0, 1 KO) vs. Cole Milani (1-0, 1 KO) at 161 Lbs.
Jared Teer (2-1) vs. Marcelino Pineda (3-0, 3 KOs) at 147 Lbs.
Tickets for Battle at the Boat 96 are still available and can be purchased at the Emerald Queen Casino box office and all Ticketmaster outlets. Prices start at $25.
Iron Boy Promotions’ card in El Paso, Texas, scheduled for Friday at Buchanan’s Event Center, has been postponed until August 8th after main and co-main event fighters being unable to be cleared medically. Ticket holders should return to point of purchase for a refund. Iron Boy Promotions has previously promoted twelve professional boxing events in Phoenix. This was slated to be their debut in Texas.
Southern California-based fight promoter Roy Englebrecht has announced his latest promotion to get fight fans more involved than ever before. Titled MANAGE A FIGHTER FOR A NIGHT, fans will have the opportunity to pretty much experience everything a fighter and their corner goes through on the night of a fight, except actually fighting. It all kicks off at the next Fight Club OC show on June 19th in The Hangar at the OC Fair & Event Center.
The $500 package allows four fans ($125 each) to participate up close and personal for one bout, with two fans in the Red Corner and two fans in the Blue Corner. (more…)
The UFC lands in Albuquerque, New Mexico for the first time ever this week, with a star-studded UFC Fight Night card featuring former lightweight champion Benson Henderson against fast rising star Rustam Khabilov.. . . Click here for more
. . . .
Coming up next: UFC FIGHT NIGHT: HENDERSON VS. KHABILOV is live on FOX SPORTS 1 on Saturday, June 7 at 10 PM ET/7 PM PT from Albuquerque, N.M. . . . Click here for more
Kiwi hope Kali Meehan (41-5, 32 KOs) scored a spectacular first round KO over Britain’s Michael Sprott (42-22, 27 KOs) to win the inaugural “Super 8″ one night, eight-man Prizefighter-style heavyweight tournament on Wednesday night at the Trusts Stadium in Auckland, New Zealand. Meehan dropped Sprott, a former two-time Prizefighter champion, twice in round one and referee Brad Vocale waved it off at 2:53. It was the 44-year-old Meehan’s first ring action in more than two years as he picked up the $200,000 winner’s check. Sprott pocketed $100,000 as the losing finalist. Semi-final losers earned $30,000, and opening round losers banked $15,000 in the richest tournament of this type to date.
Kali Meehan (40-5, 31 KOs) won a three round unanimous decision over Brice Ritani-Coe (4-3-1, 3 KOs). Meehan laid a beating on Ritani-Coe in round one, dropping him midway through the round. Ritani-Coe showed great toughness the rest of the fight and gave as good as he got in round three.
Michael Sprott (42-21, 27 KOs) scored a one-sided three round unanimous decision over Hasim Rahman-conqueror Antz Nansen (4-3, 1 KO).
In his most embarrassing performance to date, 41-year-old former heavyweight champion Hasim “The Rock” Rahman (50-9-2, 41 KOs) was defeated by little-known novice journeyman Antz Nansen (4-2, 1 KO) of New Zealand via three round unanimous decision. Rahman’s previous fight was for the WBA world heavyweight title as mandatory challenger. Nansen had lost to an 0-10 fighter in his previous fight.
The upsets kept coming as 290lb American Alonzo “Big Zo” Butler (30-3-1, 22 KOs) dropped a split decision to Kiwi novice Brice Ritani-Coe (4-2-1, 3 KOs).
Former world title challenger Kali Meehan (39-5, 31 KOs) defeated cruiserweight Hunter Sam (11-3, 4 KOs) by three round split decision. Sam was a replacement fighter for injured Samuel Peter.
In a clash of former Prizefighter winners, Michael Sprott (41-21, 27 KOs) won a close majority decision over Martin Rogan (16-5, 8 KOs). Both battled tooth and nail for all three rounds.
IBF bantamweight champion Stuart Hall is clock-watching until fight night. Hall makes the second defense of his IBF belt at Newcastle’s Metro Radio Arena on Saturday and he doesn’t remember wanting a fight to come so soon. Up against arch-rival Paul Butler, it’s fair to say little love is lost between the pair. Butler has been vocal ahead of the contest, insisting he got the better of Hall in sparring and claiming he is relishing traveling to the North East to take the champion’s belts away in front of his home fans and family. With just days to go until the eagerly-anticipated clash, ‘Stuey’ insists Butler is in for a rude awakening and that he will return to Liverpool with his unbeaten record in tatters. (more…)
By Lou McLaughlin at ringside
Photo courtesy of George Jimenez of Geo Imagez Photography
Andre Kut of KEA Boxing Promotions presented an exciting night of boxing featuring local rising talent this past Saturday at the Birchwood Manor in Whippany, NJ. In the eight round welterweight main event, Alex “The Brick City Bullet” Perez (18-1, 10 KOs) of Newark, NJ stopped Jeremiah Wiggins (10-3-1, 5 KOs) of Newport News, VA. (more…)
By Ron Jackson
In an all South African match-up Thabo Sonjica from Duncan Village makes the first defence of his IBO super bantamweight belt when he faces Toto Helebe of Cape Town at the Orient Theatre in East London on Sunday afternoon. The southpaw Sonjica, 25 , who has a record of 18-2; 13 won the vacant belt in East London on July 6 last year when he stopped Filipino Silvester Lopez in the sixth round. (more…)
Pacquiao camp eyes the Golden Boy split: More
New Zealand fight promoter looks to bring back David Tua. More
Joe Calzaghe prepares for International Boxing Hall of Fame induction. More
Former heavyweight great Joe Bugner talks Henry Cooper. More
Mikkel Kessler on the Carl Froch warpath again. More
Shannon Briggs (54-6-1, 48 KOs), the last U.S. heavyweight champion of the world, returns to the ring on June 28th. Briggs will take on formerly world ranked heavyweight Raphael Zumbano Love (34-7-1, 27 KOs) of Brazil in a scheduled for 12 round featured attraction. A regional title from one of the major sanctioning bodies will be at stake. Site of the bout will be Remington Park in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma with HD Boxing promoting. Briggs grabbed headlines worldwide last month when he crashed the Wladimir Klitschko-Alex Lepai final press conference. A YouTube video generated well over 300,000 within days of it happening. After Klitschko dominated Leapai in route to a stoppage win, the crew on ESPN Sportscenter expressed interest in seeing Briggs get an opportunity against Klitschko. Klitschko is said to be defending his titles again before the year is out and with a statement win and a major regional title (and a world ranking coming with it), Briggs could find himself in the hunt for a crack at Klitschko.
It’s official. WBA/IBO middleweight champion Gennady “GGG” Golovkin will battle two-time world champion Daniel “The Real Deal” Geale in Madison Square Garden on July 26 on HBO. The bout was announced today by K2 Promotions and GGG Promotions in association with Gary Shaw Productions and Grange Old School Boxing. Golovkin has previously fought in the Garden’s smaller “Theater” but this is his first bout in the Garden’s main arena.
Gennady Golovkin: “I’m happy to be fighting at Madison Square Garden once again. Fighting in front of the great fans in New York City for the third time is an honor for me and I will train hard to defend my titles in style by giving the fans an exciting show. Daniel Geale has a lot of world championship experience, is a big international name and I look forward to this challenge.”
Daniel Geale: “I’m pleased to be making my way back to HBO against Gennady Golovkin, a fighter who everyone thinks is invincible. A victory will get me back to where I want to be. The people of Australia believe in me and that’s what drives me, my countrymen. I want to show them they have a great champion. On July 26th the world will see me back on top.”
Advance tickets priced at $500, $300, $200, $100, $50 and $25 can be purchased starting at 10:00 a.m. ET starting next Tuesday at 12 noon at the Madison Square Garden Box Office, all Ticketmaster outlets, Ticketmaster charge by phone (866-858-0008) and online at www.ticketmaster.com and www.thegarden.com.
Photos: Chris Farina/Top Rank
Three-time world champion Miguel Cotto looked sharp during a media workout on Wednesday at the Everlast Lab in Hoboken, New Jersey. The Puerto Rican idol is putting the finishing touches on preparations for his eagerly-anticipated world title clash against WBC middleweight champion Sergio Martinez on Saturday at New York City’s Madison Square Garden live on HBO Pay-Per-View.
“Everything is ready for this Saturday and it’s only a matter for the bell to ring to put all this work and strategy to use in the ring,” said Cotto. “I know I have a strong challenge this Saturday and that’s why I worked so hard these last ten weeks. Preparation is the key to victories on the day of the fight and this will not be the exception. I hope provide a good show for all my fans.”
Cotto’s Hall of Fame trainer Freddie Roach added, “This second camp was much better than the first now that we know each other better and I believe that we’ve achieved everything we wanted to do for this fight. Miguel is strong, has plenty of experience in big fights and will come out with his arm raised.”
With WBA middleweight champion Gennady Golovkin being elevated to super champion, Jarrod Fletcher will now face Daniel Jacobs for the WBA “regular” world title. “We’ve had Murray, Chudinov and now Golovkin all pull out of either contracted or mandated fights for their own reasons, fortunately Max Bursak and now Daniel Jacobs have both stepped up to take the challenge” Said Adam Wilcock from FightCard Promotions, manager of Fletcher. “Ultimately without the backing of HBO, Golovkin brings little to the table for Jarrod. Yes there’s the title there, and we wanted that opportunity for Jarrod. But we can’t force his camp to take the fight and they obviously have their own agenda for sidestepping Fletcher. The team around Golovkin are continually in the media saying they will fight anyone in the division, but here we have a boxer that’s been WBA top 5 for the last 15 months knocking on the door for that whole time and they keep avoiding us. Says everything I think. The WBA have been great in finding a workable solution to the problems and we look forward to seeing Jarrod crowned as the new WBA world champion.”
While the last details of date and venue are in the final stages of being put together, Fletcher will continue his full time training out of the Fortitude Gym in Brisbane under the watchful eye of head trainer Steve Deller.
The WBA has elevated middleweight champion Gennady “GGG” Golovkin to “super champion” status and granted Golovkin’s request for an exception, allowing Golovkin to defend his title against Daniel Geale on HBO July 26. Golovkin had been previously ordered to face #2 Jarrod Fletcher.
Pound for pound king and two-division unified champion Floyd Mayweather has been forced to call off a UK visit scheduled for later this month after UK authorities refused to grant him a visa for unspecified reasons according to the Daily Mail. Mayweather was slated to make six appearances on his UK tour, including one in Amir Khan’s hometown of Bolton.
By Przemek Garczarczyk
It’s been more than a week since he fought WBC light heavyweight champion Adonis Stevenson (23-1, 20 KOs) in Montreal, but Andrzej Fonfara (25-3, 15 KOs) still hasn’t watched his 12-round bout with ‘Superman.’ “I plan to do this, but family, spending time with friends comes first. Stevenson is not going anywhere,” said ‘The Polish Prince’ talking to Fightnews.com in Chicago. Asked to rank best light heavyweights in the world, Fonfara rates Stevenson as #1, giving him a decisive nod in an expected clash with IBF champion Bernard Hopkins and also predicting Stevenson a winner in a tougher fight against WBO beltholder Sergey “Krusher” Kovalev.
Hasim Rahman 253 vs. Antz Nanzen 237.4
Alonzo Butler 296 vs. Brice Ritani-Coe 260
Kali Meehan 243 vs. Hunter Sam 230
Michael Sprott 247 vs. Martin Rogan 234
The “Super 8″ is a Prizefighter-style tournament taking place Wednesday night in Auckland, New Zealand. The winner of the tournament will collect $200,000, the runner-up receives $100,000, semi-finalists earn $30,000, and opening round losers bank $15,000. Fighters can receive bonuses for KOs, best fights and fight of the night.
By Karl Freitag
It didn’t take long for the fallout to hit after long time Golden Boy Promotions CEO Richard Schaefer announced he was leaving the company effective immediately. Shortly after, Mayweather Promotions CEO Leonard Ellerbe told ESPN that Golden Boy Promotions will no longer be co-promoting Floyd Mayweather’s megafights. Ellerbe later tweeted “There’s many moving pieces that play an integral part in the success of any event, but ‘your people are your most valuable resource.’” For the last seven years, all of Floyd’s fights had been presented under Golden Boy’s promoter’s license and with Golden Boy’s team primarily handling the logistics.
Golden Boy did not issue a statement on the Schaefer situation, and there was nothing from Golden Boy President Oscar de la Hoya, who is normally quite active on Twitter. However, de la Hoya’s lawyer Bert Fields released a statement to the Los Angeles Times indicating that Schaefer is contractually bound to Golden Boy until 2018 and that contract will be enforced.
De la Hoya will be in Canastota, New York, this weekend for induction into the International Boxing Hall of Fame. Schaefer isn’t expected to attend.
Also See: Richard Schaefer’s official statement
By Brett Bonetti
Looks like former WBA Light Middleweight champion Austin “No Doubt” Trout (26-2, 14 KO’s) will face Daniel “The Rock” Dawson (40-3 -1, 26 KOs) in a possible WBA light middleweight title eliminator. The bout will likely take place at the StubHub Centre in Los Angeles in early August. Trout at present holds the WBA #7 world rating and Dawson is currently ranked WBA #13. Trout won his first 26 professional fights including a victory over Miguel Cotto, but has since lost his last two fights via unanimous decision to Saul “Canelo” Alvarez and Erislandy Lara and is now looking to get back on track with a victory over Dawson. (more…)
Memories of former 60s fighter Ralph Dupas . . . More
Satisfied with his victory over George Groves, retirement is an option for Carl Froch. More
An unsatisfied Nonito Donaire wants a better, more convincing win. More
Carl Froch “unofficially” proposes to girlfriend Rachel Cordingly in the ring. More
Is James DeGale next in line for Froch? More
After scoring an impressive knockout over multi-division former world champion Vic Darchinyan (39-7-1, 28 Kos) last Saturday in Macau China, to defend his WBA featherweight belt for the second time, Jamaican Nicholas “The Axeman” Walters (24-0, 20 KOs) arrived in Panama along with his trainers and members of his managerial team.
“I’ll spend a few days at home before traveling with my father to Jamaica to celebrate this important victory with my many fans in the island but first will visit my manager Jacques Deschamps in Haiti who was unable to be in Macau with me in China,” said Walters, who recognizes Darchinyan as a tough opponent. “One thing is watching him on tape and another very different one facing him in the ring. He is fast, accurate and very strong and I have to recognize that his complicated style gave me problems to set my strategy in the early rounds.” (more…)
Photo: Mary Ann Owen
Official Statement: “After more than ten years with Golden Boy, it is time to move on to the next chapter of my career. This decision has required a great deal of personal reflection, but ultimately I concluded that I have no choice but to leave. I have succeeded in banking and I have succeeded in boxing, and I look forward to the next opportunity. I am proud to remain a shareholder, so I have a strong interest in the continued success of the company. I am proud of what we have accomplished at Golden Boy, but I now look forward to new challenges.”
There will be no further comments at this time.
All contents copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 by Freitag Marketing Services, LLC. The information on this site cannot be reused without written permission.