firstname.lastname@example.org Continuously updated all day, every day!
By Rocky Morales at ringside Photos: Tom Hogan - Hoganphotos/Golden Boy Promotions Unbeaten Viktor "The Iceman" Postol (28-0, 12KO) did what no other fighter ...
By Brian Grammer at ringside Photos: Jimmy Range at JimmyRangePhotography.zenfolio.com Undefeated IBF junior lightweight world champion Jose “The Sniper” Pedraza (21-0, 12 KOs) ...
By Brian Grammer at ringside Photos: Jimmy Range at JimmyRangePhotography.zenfolio.com Three-division world champion Adrien "The Problem" Broner (31-2, 22 KOs) won a world title ...
By Ray Wheatley -- World of Boxing Photos: Peter McDermont Former IBF, WBC, WBA, IBO champion Vic "Raging Bull" Darchinyan (40-8-1, 29 KOs) stopped ...
- Orozco: I went from being relentless to having to box
- Ex-Champ Hasegawa to return in December
- DeGale: I'm coming back with my belt / Bute: The IBF belt will stay in Quebec
- Shimoda, Kamegai victorious over Filipinos
- Broner: When Adrien Broner is on his sh!t, a fly can't be around me
- Matthysse: I felt there was damage to my eye and I also didn't feel my body
- Postol: I beat a very strong, powerful champion to win the title
- UFC 192 Main: Cormier Outlasts Gustaffsson For Split Decision
- Broner TKOs Allakhverdiev in 12 to claim vacant WBA 140lb title
- Postol KOs Matthysse in ten to claim vacant WBC 140lb title
- Pedraza wins split decision over Cherry to retain IBF 130lb title
and make sure you're getting the latest updates.
Photo: Marco Krause/Team Sauerland
Hall of Fame-Promoter Wilfried Sauerland has voiced his astonishment over Virgil Hunter’s comments at yesterday’s official Super Six World Boxing Classic press conference. The trainer of WBA super middleweight champion Andre Ward stated that Sauerland has lost confidence in Abraham because he demanded neutral judges and a neutral referee. “I see no problem in asking for a non-Californian referee – and that’s not just because it was guaranteed in the contract,” Sauerland said. “I am not sure what leads Virgil to believe that we have lost confidence in Arthur. Maybe he is getting a little nervous because Andre Ward is not fighting in Oakland this time. I thought it was funny that Dan Goossen complained about the five-hour drive Ward had to take to come down to LA for this fight. But then again, if you are used to fighting at your protected home base, travelling 400 miles might seem like a huge inconvenience, so let’s not hold it against them. All the comments from their camp and the problems with the officials are a clear indication that they do not feel comfortable about fighting away from home, even though they are still in their home state. So it’s them who are losing confidence in their fighter, not us.” (more…)
Gary Shaw Productions and DiBella Entertainment will present back-to-back boxing shows on June 10 and 11 the Roseland Ballroom on the weekend of of New York City’s annual Puerto Rican Day Parade with Felix “Tito” Trinidad acting as ambassador and host. Boricua Invasion I will air live on ESPN2 Friday Night Fights, while Boricua Invasion II will be televised live on Showtime on ShoBox: The New Generation.
Borcua Invasion I will feature welterweight KO specialist Kenny “Battlestar” Galarza (14-1, 14 KOs), of Juana Diaz, PR, in the main event against fellow Puerto Rican contender, Irving Garcia (17-6-3, 8 KOs). Topping undercard are welterweight Thomas “Tormenta” Dulorme (11-0, 10 KOs) against former world champion DeMarcus Corley (37-17-1, 22 KOs), and former Puerto Rican Olympian Jose “El Dulce” Pedraza (2-0, 2 KOs) against an opponent to be named.
Boricua Invasion II will feature popular undefeated Puerto Rican featherweight Luis “Orlandito” Del Valle (12-0, 10 KOs) against Dat Nguyen (17-1, 6 KOs), welterweight Vincent Arroyo against fellow Boricua Hector Sanchez (19-1, 9 KOs) and middleweight knockout artist Jonathan “Mantequilla Gonzalez (12-0, 12 KOs) against an opponent to be named. In a special off-TV attraction, unbeaten Gabriel “Tito” Bracero will duke it out with an opponent that will be announced in the coming days.
Photos: Promociones Miguel Cotto
Michael Perez 136 vs. Ira Terry 133
Jonathan Vidal 118 vs. Cecilio Santos 124
Emanuel Rivera 116 vs. Juan Herrera 116
Albert Cruz 147 vs. Eduardo Adorno 153
Miguel Robles 119 vs. Robert DaLuz 122.5
Jonuel Tapia 162 vs. Emil Gonzalez 162
Braulio Santos 126 vs. Felix Rivera 124
Venue: Hilton Hotel & Casino, Ponce, PR
Promoter: Golden Boy/Promociones Miguel Cotto
Click here for more photos…
Two-time heavyweight champion Hasim “The Rock” Rahman (49-7-2, 40 KOs) will headline a card on June 11th at the DeSoto Civic Center in Southaven, Mississippi. Rahman will face Willie Herring in a ten rounder topping a six=bout card presented by Prize Fight and Greg Cohen Promotions.
In the co-feature, middleweight Dominic Wade (11-0, 8 KOs) faces Juan Astorga (15-6-1, 10 KOs) in an eight round bout.
Photos by Tom Hogan/Golden Boy Promotions
He’s relatively new to the boxing game having picked up the sport just three years ago at the age of 25, but former college football star Seth “Mayhem” Mitchell (21-0-1, 15 KOs) says to expect quite a show this Friday, May 13, as he takes on tough Nicaraguan Evans “The Sandman” Quinn (20-5-1, 18 KOs) in a 10-round heavyweight battle LIVE on ShoBox: the New Generation on SHOWTIME (11:05 p.m. ET/PT, delayed on the West coast). SHOWTIME fight fans will “see a heavyweight who comes out and applies a lot of pressure,” said Mitchell, a former linebacker at Michigan State University. “Not one that provides a boring fight. They can expect someone who is aggressive and who is coming to win and ready to put on an exciting fight.” For more details and photos click here…
The undercard for the May 14 world championship event at the Home Depot Center in Carson, CA will feature a Southern California flavor with 2008 LA-area Olympic U.S. teammates Shawn “Manos De Oro” Estrada and Javier “El Intocable” Molina in separate bouts. Estrada (11-0, 10 KOs) will be seeking his 12th straight win to start his pro career when he takes on Joseph Gardner (7-2-1, 1 KO) in a scheduled six-round super middleweight contest. Molina (5-0, 4 KOs) will take the last six months of extreme hand therapy into the ring when he battles Danny Figueroa (3-1, 2 KOs) in a scheduled four-rounder. Also slated to see action in a scheduled 10-round heavyweight bout will be Manny “El Toro” Quezada (29-6, 18 KOs) against Bowie Tupou (19-1, 15 KOs). “We have a very competitive undercard leading up to the main bouts and suggest to the fans they arrive early to see the hope-to-be stars of tomorrow fighting,” Dan Goossen of Goossen Tutor Promotions said.
The evening will be headlined by the Semi-Final Tournament bout of the Super Six World Boxing Classic between WBA Super Middleweight Champion Andre “S.O.G.” Ward and “King” Arthur Abraham, in which Ward’s world title will also be at stake. The co-feature pits Riverside’s world heavyweight contender Chris “The Nightmare” Arreola vs. Nagy “Dominican Dynamite” Aguilera.
By Damrong Simakajornboon
Photos: Phisit Juajan
Petchbanborn Sor Tanapinyo (10-5-1, 5 KOs) successfully grabbed the vacant WBC Asian Continental 115 lb title as he scored a technical decision over WBA #15 super flyweight Wandee Singwancha (66-13-1, 17 KOs) on Thursday at Nathon Pier in Koh Samui, Thailand. This was a close affair as both fighters mostly exchanged toe-to-toe in a back and forth situation. The score announcement after round four were all 38-38 by two-time WBC king Wandee dominating in round two and three while Petchbanborn did better in round one and four. For more details and photos click here…
By Alexey “Oscar” Potapov
IBO middleweight champion Avtandil Khurtsidze (24-2-2, 14 KOs) will fight against Colombian power puncher Dionisio Miranda (21-6-2, 18 KOs) on June 11th at the Sport Palace in Kiev, Ukraine.
Story by Francisco Salazar
Photos by Chris Cozzone
The Super Six World Boxing Classic tournament gained a great deal of exposure as it commenced a year and a half ago. The anticipation of seeing the best fighters at 168 pounds gained in popularity as competitive matchups made fight fans and media alike eager to tune in and watch.
However, the tournament took a little longer than anticipated, due to unforeseen injuries to some of the participants involved . . . Click here for more
The sport’s fastest-rising stars continue their budding careers when STRIKEFORCE® returns to ShoWare Center in Kent, Wash., on Friday, June 24. In the main event of STRIKEFORCE Challengers, lightweight Caros “The Future” Fodor (8-2) of nearby Kirkland, Wash. defends his home turf when he meets the hard-hitting James Terry (10-2), a protégé of middleweight star Cung Le. (more…)
By Gabriel F. Cordero
The possibility exists that three-division world champion Juan Manuel Marquez will be reappear on July 2 against former WBC lightweight champion David Diaz in a junior welterweight fight in Mexico City, before moving on to a possible third fight against Manny Pacquiao on November 12 in Las Vegas. The possible venues for the fight in Mexico City are the Arena Mexico, El Palacio de los Deportes and the Foro Sol. The last fight for Marquez in Mexico was on December 3, 1994.
A confidential source indicates that Juan Manuel Marquez has accepted a revised offer from Top Rank, which will be sent to Golden Boy Promotions who have the right to match the offer and find another opponent for Marquez and promote that fight. If they don’t, then Pacquiao-Marquez III is a go. Arum and Marquez met last weekend in Las Vegas. The contract lays out a fight at a catchweight of 144 pounds with Pacquiao’s WBO welterweight title on the line. Marquez would earn a purse of $5 million, the same received by Shane Mosley against Pacquiao. The source also indicated that Top Rank could make an official announcement soon, possibly in the next few days.
Former heavyweight champion “Big” George Foreman has advised 46-year-old Bernard Hopkins to do something he hasn’t done since 2004 if B-Hop is going to break his record as the oldest fighter in boxing history to win a significant world title. “You must get a knockout, stated Foremen. “This fight and the record will not be broken on a unanimous decision. There must be a knockout!” Hopkins has been been involved in ten consecutive twelve-round decisions since his last knockout, ironically against his business partner Oscar de la Hoya. (more…)
By Rocco Morales
Photos: Big Joe Miranda
Wednesday afternoon, Arnie Morton’s Steakhouse in Burbank, California, was the site of the final press conference for the showdown between WBA Super World super middleweight champion, Andre “S.O.G.” Ward, and former IBF middleweight chamion, “King” Arthur Abraham.
Emotions ran high, particularly from the Ward camp, at the press conference as there seemed to be some hostility regarding the Abraham camp’s insistence on neutral ringside officials. However, the Abraham camp responded that this was in the contract all along not only for this fight but for all Super Six World Boxing Classic tournament fights. Ward’s camp, however, chose to portray things differently, and not look it as a contractual issue as much as a matter of Abraham’s camp losing faith in their fighter and looking for any possible advantage. (more…)
By Gabriel F. Cordero
Exciting WBC featherweight champion Jhonny Gonzalez (48-7, 42 KOs) could be coming to SHOWTIME according to promoter Oswaldo Kuchle Reginaldo of Promociones del Pueblo. Kuchle says a proposed deal would include Gonzalez’ first title defense next July in Cancun or Campeche possibly against Roinet Caballero or former world champion Guty Espadas Jr., a September clash against a compatriot former champion like Rafael Marquez or Daniel Ponce de León, followed by a third bout in December.
WBA flyweight champion Hernan “Tyson” Marquez Tadeo is back in the Montiel Gym in Los Mochis, where he’s starting his preparations for his first title defense. “Tyson” (30-2-1, 23 KOs) will face a challenger who will be announced by Isthmus Promotions no later than next week, but more than likely it will be a fighter from Nicaragua, Panama or Peru. The bout will take place on July 2nd at the Centro de Usos Múltiples in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, the first world title fight in the building since 2001.
By Felipe Leon
For junior welterweight Julio Diaz (38-6, 27 KOs) this Friday night might change his life. Granted the two-time lightweight champion has been on the eve of a career transforming bout but at the age of thirty-one, the stakes are higher for his ten round contest versus former champion Kendall Holt (26-4, 14 KOs) since the winner might be on the road to the always aspired “bigger and better” fights while the loser might have to consider his investments for life after boxing. (more…)
By Ray Wheatley — World of Boxing
English-born – Australian-based trainer Graham Shaw talks to Fightnews about his boxer the new IBF middleweight champion Daniel Geale and there plan and preparation before capturing the IBF title from Sebastian Sylvester last Saturday in Germany. Shaw also says that Daniel is proud to be IBF champion and he will fight the best middleweights in the world. (more…)
Welterweight Kell Brook says he will be the first fighter to stop tough Australian Lovemore N’dou when the pair fight in Brook’s hometown of Sheffield on June 25. Brook admits this is the ‘toughest test of his career so far’ but the 25 year-old is determined to put on a great show at the Hillsborough Leisure Centre and extend his unbeaten record to 24 fights. “N’dou been in with top, top names and never been stopped, he’s a tough and game champion,” said Brook. “It’s a great motivation for me as I want to be the first to stop him. It’s in Sheffield with my home fans roaring me on and I’m running past the venue every day thinking ‘on June 25 I’m going to have a sell-out show in there and I’m going to put on the best performance of my life’.”
By Ron Jackson
Junior lightweight Joey Stiglingh maintained his unbeaten record when he outpointed Kupula Mbonuama from the DRC over six entertaining rounds at Emperors Palace, Kempton Park on Tuesday night. Stiglingh from Colin Nathan’s Hotbox gym was in control throughout against the rugged Mbonuama who never stopped trying against the slick Stiglingh. (more…)
“Vicious” Victor Ortiz’s stirring April victory over Andre Berto not only earned him the WBC Welterweight World Championship, but it also showed the power of perseverance against all odds, and not just in the ring, but in life as well. As a result, Ortiz was honored yesterday with a proclamation signed by Kansas Governor Sam Brownback as well as with the declaration of May 10 being named “Victor Ortiz Day” in his home state. Ortiz also visited the Kansas House of Representatives and was honored with a standing ovation during the final legislative meeting of the term. (more…)
Photos by Tom Casino/SHOWTIME
The final press conference for the kickoff of the Semifinals of the Super Six World Boxing Classic turned tense on Wednesday at Arnie Morton’s The Steakhouse in Burbank, Calif., just three days before tournament favorite Andre Ward defends his WBA super middleweight title against former world champion Arthur Abraham, LIVE on SHOWTIME® (10 p.m. ET/PT, delayed on the West Coast) from The Home Depot Center in Carson, Calif.
In a detailed and lengthy speech, Ward’s trainer, Virgil Hunter, told Abraham that his trainer and promoters are displaying a lack of confidence in him to win on Saturday by demanding neutral judges and officials for the Semifinal showdown. Abraham’s promoter responded that they were trying to protect their fighter and claimed that the referee in the Ward-Mikkel Kessler Group Stage 1 bout did not fairly officiate the match. (more…)
Photos and report by Ricardo Conde
Hard hitting featherweight and current interim WBC Youth featherweight champion Javier ‘El Abejon’ Fortuna (14-0, 11 KOs) of the Dominican Republic departed for Uruguay earlier this week having finished training camp at the World Crown Sports Training Center in Oxnard, California for his first title defense against Hugo ‘Polvorita’ Gomez (11-3, 1 KO) of Argentina that takes place this Friday, May 13th at the Estadio Cr. Gaston Guelfi/ Palacio Peñarol in Montevideo, Uruguay which is being presented by Sergio Marquez Promociones and Sampson Boxing. For more details and photos click here…
By Boxing Bob Newman
Photo: Ed Diller
Mike Faragon 135 vs. Miguel Rodriguez 135
Kimdo Bethel 234 vs. Mujaheed Moore 259
Ray Velez 138 vs. Jemell Tyson 137
Roger Zapata 178 vs. Borngod Washington 175
Venue: Empire State Plaza Convention Center, Albany, New York
Promoter: Pugnacious Promotions
By Przemek Garczarczyk
On May 24 in Wroclaw, Poland and May 25 in Dresden, Germany, Polish light heavyweight and cruiserweight champion Tomasz Adamek (44-1, 28 KOs) will meet for the first time the biggest challenge of his career – WBC heavyweight titleholder Vitali Klitschko (44-2, 39 KO). “It will be my first face to face with Vitali and our chance to officially announce the stadium in Wroclaw as the fight site for the September 10 event,” said Adamek. “I’m looking forward to both press conferences and to my training camp with Roger Bloodworth which will start in the middle of June. I’m feeling very confident about my chances and becoming a first fighter in our sport’s history who will have the light heavyweight, cruiserweight and heavyweight belts.”
Unbeaten welterweight contender Mike Jones makes his first start in his hometown of Philadelphia in more than two years when he takes on Raul Munoz, of Leon, Mexico in the scheduled 10-round main event Saturday evening, June 25, at the South Philly Arena, 7 West Ritner Street. The Jones-Munoz fight is part of the Top Rank Live! series which will be promoted by Top Rank, Inc. and Peltz Boxing Promotions and will be televised live by Fox Sports Net beginning at 10 pm EST. First of six additional fights begins at 7:30 p.m. (more…)
The Oklahoma Athletic Commission reversed itself today and changed last Thursday night’s ruling in the Carson Jones vs Michael Clark USBA Welterweight Title fight from a ‘no contest’ to a TKO win for Carson Jones. The bout was initially announced as a ‘no contest’ when Michael Clark indicated he could not continue after being hit with an accidental low blow in the second round. The OAC conducted a review of the applicable rules and found that under both IBF and Oklahoma rules a fighter must continue after a five minute break or the opponent is declared the winner. Clark now 41-6 (18 KO’s) entered the ring wearing a football style cup instead of a boxing foul protector leaving most of his groin area unprotected. Jones won round one on all three judges’ scorecards and looked to be in control of the bout at the time of the stoppage. Jones record now improves to 30-8 (20 KOs), and with the win captures his third major regional title.
Christy Martin will go for her 50th pro win when she takes on Dakota Stone on the Sebastian Zbik vs. Julio Cesar Chavez Jr world title card at the STAPLES Center in Los Angeles on Saturday, June 4. “First time I have ever fought in California,” said Christy. “I am going for my 50th win which is exciting. I have been on a lot of big cards with Julio Cesar Chavez and now I am on a Chavez Jr. world title card. It’s amazing, when you think of it.” Christy, the Coal Miner’s Daughter from Bluefield, West Virginia, is training with Miguel Diaz who is assisted by Richie Sandoval at the Top Rank Gym in Las Vegas. Christy will take on Dakota Stone of Mountain View, Calif., in a super welterweight bout. The two fought last Sept. 2 in Syracuse, N.Y. Christy won a 10-round majority decision. “It was a real tough fight,” Christy said.
By Ray Wheatley — World of Boxing
Two time world champion Lovemore Ndou talks about scheduled June 25 bout with Kell Brook in London, England.
Who Will Be The Eighth Quarterfinalist? All New TUF Tonight: Javier Torres & Chuck O’Neil battle for the last spot in the quarterfinals – The Ultimate Fighter, all new tonight at 9pm on SPIKE (in the US) and on Rogers Sportsnet (Canada)
Henderson vs Miller In August, Plus More Fights Added To UFC on Versus: Stephan Bonnar returns to take on Karlos Vemola in Milwaukee, plus Rampage vs Hamill headlines UFC 130 Fight Card Updates>
Former world champion Arthur Abraham says he’s well prepared both mentally and physically to defeat reigning WBA super middleweight champion Andre Ward LIVE on SHOWTIME at 10PM ET/PT (delayed on the West Coast) at the Home Depot Center in Carson, California.
On being an overwhelming underdog:
This totally makes no difference to me. At the beginning of the tournament everybody picked Kessler. Then when I knocked out Jermain Taylor in the first round of the tournament all of a sudden I was the favorite to win the whole thing. Now it’s Ward’s time. But only until Saturday. Then the cards will be reshuffled! This is the beauty of boxing. One punch can change everything, in the most true sense of the word. (more…)
By Robert Coster
Former WBC junior flyweight champion and WBC #1 flyweight contender Edgar Sosa( 42-6,25 KOs) will be stepping back into the ring on June 2nd to meet WBC #12 Julio “Matador” Paz (12-1, 4 KOs) of Uruguay in defense of his WBC International title. This fight, which is to be held in Mexico, constitutes Sosa’s last hurdle before challenging the formidable WBC Champion Pongsaklek Wonjonkam sometime in the fall. “I’m not looking past Julio Paz. I’ve heard he’s a good boxer and I can expect him to come fully prepared since the winner of this fight will meet Wonjonkam,” declared Sosa as he is getting ready to get back into training. Sosa’s Uruguayan opponent holds the WBC Latino title and will be fighting for the first time outside of his homeland.
Update: The EPIX broadcast of the Braehmer-Cleverly WBO light heavyweight championship will be presented exclusively to the U.S. via tape-delay on June 18, not live.
American premium cable channel Epix will televise promoter Frank Warren’s May 21st show at The O2 in London. The card features Juergen Braehmer defending his WBO light heavyweight title against interim titlist Nathan Cleverly, plus the highly-charged grudge match between rivals James DeGale and George Groves for the British and Commonwealth super middleweight titles. Also on the card is Britain’s only ever world amateur champion Frankie Gavin. Epix presented a live telecast of WBC heavyweight champion Vitali Klitschko’s defense against Odlanier Solis in their boxing debut earlier this year.
No official numbers yet, but Top Rank expects the pay-per-view buys for Pacqiuiao-Mosley to surpass the 1.2 million buys for Pacquiao-Margarito.
Pacquiao’s next opponent could be Juan Manuel Marquez who has accepted a second proposal for a November 12 fight against Pacquiao in Las Vegas at a catchweight of 144lbs. Golden Boy has a right to match the $5 million offer and has signaled that they may put Marquez in with WBC welterweight champion Victor Ortiz.
Ortiz has also been linked to a possible fight against Floyd Mayweather Jr. in Dallas, but that is more of a rumor at this point.
Meanwhile, Mayweather’s legal woes continue to pile up. Last week a bouncer at a Vegas strip club sued Floyd alleging that Floyd’s bodyguard roughed him up. Floyd is also facing charges involving two separate incidents with security guards, as well as various felony charges involving the mother of his children.
Undefeated super featherweight prospect Jerry “The Kid” Belmontes (14-0, 5 KOs) has reached an agreement with manager Cameron Dunkin. Belmontes is co-managed by Adrian Clark.
No fights currently scheduled but undefeated Cuban featherweight prospect Luis “La Estrella” Franco (9-0 5 KOs) is currently training at SoMi Fitness in Miami with strength and conditioning coach Willie Del Sol and dietician Unni Greene. He is undergoing a fitness program specially designed to increase his punching power and stamina.
By Gabriel F. Cordero
WBA interim miniumweight world champion Samuel Gutierrez is in the final stages of training for the second defense of his crown against former WBC world champion Juan Palacios on May 21 in San Martin Texmelucan, Puebla, Mexico. “Palacios is a big challenger, but I trained hard and the fight is on front of my people and I’ll be very inspired with this support. I struggled to become a world champion and will defend it with all my desire,” said Gutierrez. Palacios continued his training in Managua, Nicaragua, and hopes to travel on Sunday to Mexico.
Promociones del Pueblo company expects a “great boxing night” because in the semifinal WBC super flyweight silver champion Oscar “Ceviche” Ibarra will defend against Juanito Rubillar in another great Mexico-Philippines matchup. Also Jorge “Maromero” Paez Jr., who in his last fight defeated former world champion Jose Luis Castillo, will face Jose “Piston” Lopez and lightweight Mauricio “Trompas” Pintor (son of Mexican ring great Lupe Pintor) will face TBA.
By Ron Jackson
Rodney Berman, of Golden Gloves Promotions, has announced an outstanding bill for the show at Emperors Palace, Kempton Park on June 4, which will be headed by the clash between young Flo Simba and the veteran Frans Botha, who has fought Mike Tyson during his long career.
Ten champions or former champions will be in action in the tournament with a total of 58 rounds of boxing scheduled. The program adds up to one of the most exciting bills to be presented in South Africa in recent years. The 22-year-old Simba, the IBO Youth champion, gets an opportunity to make a statement in the heavyweight division when he faces 42-year-old Botha, a former IBF heavyweight champion. (more…)
All contents copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 by Freitag Marketing Services, LLC. The information on this site cannot be reused without written permission.