firstname.lastname@example.org Continuously updated all day, every day!
- Boxing Buzz
- Oquendo arrives in New York for WBA world title fight against Cuellar
- Jacobs: I’m the real New Yorker!
- Mark De Mori: This will be a good fight with two guys trying to knock each other out
- Benavidez media day in Phoenix
- Peter Nelson to head HBO Sports
- Teper injured, Helenius to face new opponent
- Saunders says Fury backs him against Lee
- Vences, Ruiz shore up UniMas undercard
- Jhonny González returns Saturday
- Nine days will define plenty in UFC Watch
and make sure you're getting the latest updates.
Special 2-Fight Episode of TUF Tonight: Four fighters enter the Octagon tonight on an all new Ultimate Fighter – can Team Lesnar take the lead as the preliminary round nears the end? Don’t miss an all new episode tonight at 9pm on SPIKE (in the US) and at 10pm on Rogers Sportsnet in Canada
CORRECTION – STRIKEFORCE Challengers Tickets On Sale Next Week: Live Friday, June 24 at the ShoWare Center in Kent, WA – UFC Fight Club Presale starts Tuesday, May 10 at 10am PT Tickets>
Dos Anjos Steps In For Dunham Against George Sotiropoulos At UFC 132: An injury has forced lightweight Evan Dunham out of his contest against George Sotiropoulos, and will be replaced by Rafael dos Anjos on July 2 in Vegas Fight Card Updates>
By Andreas Hale
Manny Pacquiao and “Sugar” Shane Mosley pose for the media at today’s final press conference held at the MGM’s Hollywood Theater in Las Vegas.
J Prince: “It’s an honor and a privilege to be here today to witness one of the biggest upsets in the history of boxing; that’s “Sugar” Shane Mosley beating Manny Pacquiao.”
Nazeem Richardson: “All we keep hearing about is age and is age a factor. What we fail to forget is that we’re not talking about an ordinary guy getting older in the ring. We’re talking about a special guy. This guy is a legend. . . . Mosley is bringing his own set of weapons to the plate and Pacquiao is going to see difficulties that he has never seen before”
Shane Mosley: “This fight is going to be a terrific fight. We’re both warriors, we both love to fight and we’re both winners. When you get two winners in the ring you know it’s going to be a heck of a fight.”
Freddie Roach: “From day one Manny told me this would not be an easy fight and he’s been training his ass off from then until now. We know we’re in for a tough fight.”
Manny Pacquiao: “You heard I trained hard for this fight. You know why? Because Mosley is a good fighter. You think he’s old? He’s not old. He moves like he’s 31-years-old. He has handspeed, foot speed and he knocked Margarito out. I fought Margarito and we went twelve rounds. He has an advantage there.
“The biggest of my fight of my life is not in boxing. The biggest fight of my life is how to end poverty in my country.
“I’m so happy about this fight because there is no trash talking. This is a good example to the boxing fans and the children who idolize the fighters.”
Big time boxing returns to Liverpool’s Echo Arena on July 16th when WBO super featherweight champion Ricky Burns tops the bill in defense of his title. An opponent for Burns will be announced next week. For Burns it will be the third defense of the title he ripped away from Rocky Martinez in September and it will be his first time fighting outside of Scotland as a world champion. Promoter Frank Warren said, “Burns is one of only four world champions that Britain can boast of at the moment and the only one you can watch on these shores and he is every bit as exciting as Haye, Froch and Khan, all who are having their next fights abroad.”
In the co-feature, Commonwealth light heavyweight beltholder Tony Bellew aims to add the vacant British title in a rematch with Ovill McKenzie.
By Ron Jackson
Des Williams, the last surviving member of the outstanding 1948 SA Olympic boxing team, has died at the age of 83. Williams was living at the St Michaels Retirement Village in Weltevreden Park, near Johannesburg, until he passed away after a short illness. (more…)
Photo: Team Sauerland
IBF middleweight champion Sebastian Sylvester (34-3-1, 16 KOs) evoked the names of former IBF 160lb titlists Marvin Hagler, Roy Jones Jr., Bernard Hopkins, Jermain Taylor and Arthur Abraham at a press conference today in Neubrandenburg, Germany. “Hagler, Jones, Hopkins, Taylor, Abraham etc. – they are all illustrious names. And I am proud to be one of them. I think that a triumph on Saturday would take me another step further forwards. I want to show that I deserve to be among this group of names, and leave the ring victorious as the IBF Champion against Daniel Geale,” said the confident title holder. “Geale is strong, but he is not going to win in my living room, the Jahnsportforum,” added Sylvester.
IBF #1 rated Geale (24-1, 15 KOs) stated “My preparation went according to plan,” he said. “Of course I know that Sylvester is very accomplished, but I want to make my dream of being champion become reality.” (more…)
Over four years removed from their first clash, UFC® stars Dominick Cruz and Urijah Faber are set to meet again – this time for the UFC bantamweight championship. Ultimate Fighting Championship® officials announced today that on Saturday, July 2 live from the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Cruz will defend the UFC bantamweight title against his heated rival Faber in one of the most anticipated title bouts of the summer. The 26-year-old Cruz is out to avenge a 2007 featherweight title loss to “The California Kid” and now looks to settle the score in the highly-entertaining 135-pound division. (more…)
Story by Andreas Hale
Ever since it was announced that Manny Pacquiao would be taking on “Sugar” Shane Mosley, it was a foregone conclusion to many that boxing’s pound for pound king would smash the green-eyed 39-year-old to smithereens. But despite what anyone thinks about Shane Mosley, Manny Pacquiao and Freddie Roach aren’t taking the former three division world champion any lighter than . . . say . . . Floyd Mayweather Jr . . . Click here for more
By Ray Wheatley — World of Boxing
Australian middleweight Daniel Geale (24-1, 15 KOs) will challenge Sebastian Sylvester (34-3-1, 16 KOs) on Saturday for the IBF middleweight crown when they clash over twelve rounds at Jahnsportforum in Neubrandenburg, Germany. IBF supervisor is Aaron Kizer from Phoenix, Arizona who is also an IBF Board member. Referee is Randy Neumann from New Jersey. Judges are Berit Andreasen of Denmark, Steve Epstein from Connecticut and Marcus McDonell from London, England. Geale scored an impressive twelve round stoppage over former IBF 154 pound champion Roman Karmazin in October 2010 to become the IBF mandatory contender. Sebastian Sylvester was awarded a twelve round draw against Roman Karmazin in June 2010 to retain the championship.
Matchroom Sport haas announced that Carl ‘The Cobra’ Froch has signed a five-fight promotional deal. The WBC Super-Middleweight champion spoke with both Barry and Eddie Hearn earlier this month and the work starts straight away with Froch heading to the States to fight Glen Johnson on June 4 in the semi-final of the Super Six in Atlantic City. The 33 year-old Nottingham star has wowed fight fans with his stunning performances against Jean Pascal, Jermaine Taylor, Andre Dirrell and Arthur Abraham, and now he plans to become a household name after years of frustration in the shadows.
“I’m so excited to be working with Matchroom,” said Froch. “When you are fighting at your peak it’s about raising your profile and securing TV time and that’s where I am. When you sit down with Barry and Eddie, you can tell they have the power and the resources to maximise your potential so I’m really excited about the rest of my career. (more…)
Photos: Fantasy Springs Resort Casino
Three-time world title challenger Librado Andrade, top contender Enrique Ornelas and unbeaten local prospect Randy Caballero worked out for the media on Tuesday at the Coachella Boxing Club as they prepare for their upcoming bouts on Friday’s TeleFutura-televised card at Fantasy Springs Resort Casino in Indio, Calif. Andrade (29-3, 22 KOs) faces Aaron Pryor, Jr. (15-3, 11 KOs) in a ten round light heavyweight main event while younger brother Ornelas (30-7, 20 KOs) will take on Hector Hernandez (10-3-2, 4 KOs) in the eight round light heavyweight co-feature. (more…)
48-year-old former heavyweight champion Evander Holyfield (43-10-2, 28 KOs) is in Copenhagen, Denmark for Saturday’s clash with 46-year-old Brian Nielsen (64-2, 43 KOs), who is returning to the ring after a nine year retirement.
“I’m full of respect for Brian Nielsen. He looks strong-willed, and his form is quite obviously improved since I saw him in December for the first time,” Holyfield wrote in the Ekstra Bladet. “With that said, he’ll have problems when we first meet up between the ropes. It’s me who is ‘The Real Deal,’ and I’m here in this country with a mission to be completed Saturday night. The mission is very simple: I will defeat Nielsen fair and square.” (more…)
Photo: Sauerland Event
Defending IBF middleweight champion Sebastian Sylvester and challenger Daniel Geale worked out for the public on Tuesday at the Bethanien Center in advance of Saturday’s world title clash clash at the Jahnsportforum in Neubrandenburg, Germany.
Geale hit the pads of trainer Graham Shaw for two rounds with rapid fire punches and vowed that he would “take the title.” Sylvester did a few rounds of padwork with trainer Karsten Roewer followed by three rounds of shadow boxing to the rhythmic clapping of his fans. When asked what the audience would see, Sylvester replied “A victory. I have prepared myself well and with the support of the fans I want to have a great fight against Geale.”
In other fights, light heavyweight Eduard Gutknecht meets Danny McIntosh, light heavyweight Karo Murat faces Otis Griffin, cruiserweight Enad Licina returns against Michele De Meo and heavyweight Edmund Gerber goes against Carl Baker.
Hall of Fame trainer Emanuel Steward is hard at work at the Kronk Gym in Detroit with his new client, former WBC light heavyweight champion “Bad” Chad Dawson (29-1, 17 KO’s), for Dawson’s upcoming 12-round match-up against Romanian/Canadian light heavyweight contender Adrian Diaconu (27-2, 15 KO’s). The two will meet on the undercard of the May 21 “Dynasty II: Pascal vs. Hopkins” rematch at the Bell Centre in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and it will be more than a non-title clash of top 175-lb contenders for Dawson. If he wins, Dawson will face the winner of the Pascal and Hopkins in an effort to regain the belt.
Steward, known for his ability to analyze fighters and formulate winning fight plans, says he sees why Dawson is a champion and is currently working to change some technical errors in the style of the 6′ 1″ southpaw. “He’s unbelievable; phenomenal balance. He goes in and out and changes directions very, very well. He’s a terrific positional fighter. A lot of guys are always out of position, but Chad is sensational at getting in the right position to punch. He’s a natural athlete with a track background. A lot of boxers are that way, very gifted athletes.” (more…)
By Graham Houston
The smaller weight classes continued to provide the best fights with a thrilling Mexican civil war on Saturday night that saw the younger, stronger Adrian Hernandez overwhelm Gilberto Keb Baas in 10 rounds to capture the WBC light-flyweight title.
Keb Baas is a remarkable fighter, who despite having suffered 20 losses turned his career around, winning the 108-pound title with an upset victory over Omar Nino Romero. One of Keb Baas’s losses was to Hernandez — a fourth-round stoppage defeat three years ago when Keb Baas’s career was in a slump. The rematch was a different story, a classic contest between a boxer and a fighter. (more…)
Photos: Chris Farina/Top Rank
They started hovering around the make-shift ring in the lobby and the front entrance at MGM Grand an hour before the first of the custom-designed buses were scheduled to arrive. First, a little after 11 a.m., came the Shane Mosley bus. Then, at a tad after 1, the bus carrying Manny Pacquiao and his team rolled onto the property. By the time Pacquiao stepped inside the MGM, several hundred vocal, animated fans, most carrying cameras and chanting his name, and media, including dozens of TV crews, had jammed into the area.
This Saturday, May 7, at the sold-out MGM Grand Garden Arena, eight-division world champion Pacquiao (52-3-2, 38 KOs), of General Santos City, Philippines, will defend his WBO welterweight title against three-division world champion Mosley (46-6-1, 39 KOs), of Pomona, Calif., in the main event of a four-fight telecast produced and distributed live by SHOWTIME PPV® beginning at 9 p.m. ET/6 p.m. PT. The eagerly awaited event also will be available online at www.toprank.tv, www.sports.SHO.com, www.cbs.com and www.sports.yahoo.com. (more…)
Tickets On Sale This Week For UFC 132 Cruz vs Faber 2 In Vegas: Dominick Cruz and Urijah Faber go head-to-head once again, this time for the UFC bantamweight title – plus, Tito Ortiz returns to take on Ultimate Fighter winner Ryan Bader – Saturday, July 2 live at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas – UFC Fight Club Presale starts Thursday at 10am PT Tickets>
On June 18, WBC super welterweight champion Saul Canelo Alvarez will return home to the Arena Vicente Fernandez Gomez (VFG) in Guadalajara Jalisco, Mexico to defend his crown for the first time against top available contender Ryan Rhodes of England. The co-feature will be a showdown of two of the top young junior lightweights in the world, when unbeaten Adrien “The Problem” Broner battles Jason Litzau. HBO will televise.
Photo and report by Ricardo Conde
Two-division world champion Sergio ‘Maravilla’ Martinez (47-2-2, 26 KOs) of Oxnard, California, by way of Argentina has confirmed that he will be in attendance for the Manny Pacquiao-Shane Mosley fight that takes place this Saturday, May 7th at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas, Nevada. Before the Pacquiao-Mosley fight, Martinez will be at the MGM Grand on Friday May 6th to attend the 86th annual awards banquet of the Boxing Writers Association of America, which is honoring the outstanding boxers and boxing journalism of 2010, to receive the 2010 “Fighter of the Year” award which will be hosted by SHOWTIME broadcaster Al Bernstein. (more…)
Sources confirmed that discussions have been made to have IBF welterweight Jan Zaveck (31-1, 18 KOs) defend his title against former WBC weltweight champion Andre Berto (27-1, 21 KOs). No site or exact date has been decided though July or August could be a possibility.
Photo: Manny Pacquiao surveys a mob of supporters at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas at today’s Grand Arrivals. Though clearly outnumbered by Paquiao fans, “Sugar” Shane Mosley made his arrival to cheers around 12:30 while Pacquaio’s tour bus pulled up around 1 p.m.
The WBO announced today the officials who will work this Saturday, May 7th, in Las vegas for the title defenses of Manny Pacquiao and Wilfredo Vazquez Jr.
WBO president Francisco “Paco” Valcarcel reported that for the Pacquiao (52-3-2, 38 KOs) WBO Welterweight Champion, against Sugar Shane Mosley (46-6-1, 39 KOs) fight, the third man in the ring will be Kenny Bayless, from Nevada. The judges are Duane Ford, Dave Moretti and Glenn Trowbridge, all three from Nevada. WBO Supervisor will be Leon Panoncillo Jr.
For the WBO 122lb Title match between champion Vázquez Jr. (20-0-1, 17 KOs) and former three time champion Jorge “Travieso” Arce (56-6-2, 43 KOs), referee will be Joe Cortez, and judges, Nevada’s Robert Hoyle and Burt Clements, and from Indiana, Gary Merritt. WBO Supervisor for this bout is Luis Pérez, Chairman of Ratings Comittee.
Valcarcel and Pérez will travel tomorrow to Las Vegas to attend the card.
Story by Andreas Hale
Photos by Chris Cozzone
It must be exhausting to be Shane Mosley these days. Not because he’s preparing for yet another fight that can be called the biggest of his career, but because of the line of questioning he has had to deal with after his upcoming bout with Manny Pacquiao on May 7th was announced back in December. The scrutiny that he has had to deal with has reached a boiling point and even Shane Mosley is having trouble keeping that million dollar smile on his face . . . Click here for more
Top Rank announced today that the May 7 Manny Pacquiao vs. Shane Mosley world welterweight championship event at the sold out MGM Grand in Las Vegas, will be available live on both pay-per-view television and online. The four-bout pay-per-view card, produced and distributed live by SHOWTIME PPV®, will be available online for $54.95 while boasting interactive features unique to the digital platform through NeuLion’s technology. The enhanced and unique viewing offers a four-shot, multi-angle dynamic player that will allow viewers to interact and feel an enriched experience. The online pay-per-view is exclusive to U.S. viewers. “This pay-per-view offering will complement our current distribution which appeals to sports fans who are engaged in digital platforms on a daily basis. Sports viewing has entered a new frontier and Pacquiao vs. Mosley will be the pioneer for the boxing world,” said Todd duBoef, president of Top Rank. The following websites will be offering the Pacquiao vs. Mosley four-bout pay-per-view live stream: www.toprank.tv, www.sports.SHO.com, www.cbs.com and www.sports.yahoo.com. Select cable and satellite TV systems will also be offering the pay-per-view live stream. Viewers should check with their local providers.
By Gabriel F. Cordero
HG Boxing is focused on promoting a WBA KO to Drugs Festival in Mexico on June 11. In the event, current WBA super welterweight world champion Austin Trout will defend his crown against David “The Destroyer” Lopez and featherweight prospect Rafael “Chocho” Guzman is also expected to fight for a world title. It will be the first time the event takes place in Mexico. “We have three sites that have been offered and there are great expectations,” said promoter Hector Garcia. “We’re inviting the WBA legends, current champions like Miguel Cotto, Juan Manuel Marquez, Yuriorkis Gamboa and many others….We need to decide which charitable group to make a large donation.” This year, the WBA has the intention to hold KO Drugs events in Nicaragua, Venezuela, Panama and Mexico.
Former British, Commonwealth and European titlist John Murray (31-0, 18 KOs) will take on former British and Commonwealth beltholder Kevin Mitchell (31-1, 23 KOs) on July 9th at a venue located in London.
Murray: “I thought Mitchell had bottled it once and for all when he turned down the opportunity to fight me earlier this year, but I am glad we finally have a date as this fight has been a long time coming and, apart from the world title, this is the only meaningful challenge left for me in the UK.”
Mitchell: “Murray’s done well but he hasn’t faced me yet and, if he had, we wouldn’t keep hearing about his unbeaten record, I was 31-0 too with more stoppages than him, until I lost out in my 32nd fight which he will too. Personally, I am over the moon that the fight is taking place in London so I can show my legions of fans that last year was a one off an Kevin Mitchell is back.”
If you missed any part of SHOWTIME’s groundbreaking FIGHT CAMP 360°: Pacquiao vs. Mosley series, here are the first three episodes in their entirety. Follow Manny Pacquiao, Shane Mosley, and the cameras of SHOWTIME Sports as they prepare for the May 7th PPV showdown in Las Vegas.
By Gabriel F. Cordero
The possibility exists that the WBC may order a rematch between WBC light flyweight champion Adrian “Confessor” Hernandez and former champion Gilberto Keb Baas. According to WBC president Jose Sulaiman, Hernandez’ victory was legitimate on Saturday in Texcoco, Mexico where the referee Jerry Cantu didn’t allow the still game defending titleholder to continue after round ten. “Given the merit of the highly competitive fight and respect for the former champion, as WBC president I am addressing the members of the Governing Council to put to a vote the granting of a voluntary defense for the new champion Adrian Hernandez, but requiring a deserved rematch against Gilberto Keb in the next fight.”
By Ron Jackson
SA junior flyweight champion Sizwe Sinyabi failed a medical test, causing last weekend’s tournament at Port Alfred to be cancelled. Sinyabi, who is from Mdantsane, near East London, was due to defend his title against Monwabisi Ngundwana from Port Elizabeth. The fight would have been the highlight of the tournament in the Community Hall. But the show was called off only hours before the start when the officials received the results of his medical test. The results of other boxers who were scheduled to fight on the bill were also outstanding so promoter Gladys Tsenene had to cancel the tournament. Sinyabi, who has a record of 19-8-2, with 9 knockouts, is trained by Nick Durandt. He was scheduled to make the first defence of the title that he won in Port Elizabeth on July 16 last year when he outpointed Mfundo Gwayana over 12 rounds.
The March/April issue of African Ring is now available. Publisher Jeff Ellis has also made the magazine available on the internet at www.africanringmagazine.com. Ellis also deals in books, magazines and other memorabilia and can be contacted at email@example.com
Photos: Chris Farina/Top Rank
Superstar Manny Pacquiao makes final preparations at the Wildcard Boxing Club in Hollywood Monday for his upcoming World Welterweight mega fight against “Sugar” Shane Mosley on Saturday, May 7 at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas. Pacquiao vs. Mosley is promoted by Top Rank in association with MP Promotions,Sugar Shane Mosley Promotions, Tecate and MGM Grand. The Pacquiao vs. Mosley telecast will be available live on SHOWTIME Pay-Per-View. Click here for more photos…
Manny Pacquiao and Sugar Shane Mosley will work out one more time today before breaking their respective California training camps, in Hollywood and Big Bear, and departing in custom-designed buses for the Fight Capital of the World, Las Vegas. Fans of the popular world champion fighters can greet them at their grand arrivals tomorrow at the Porte Cochere and inside the front lobby of the MGM Grand. Mosley and trainer Naazim Richardson will arrive at noon. Pacquiao and trainer Freddie Roach will arrive at 12:30PM.
A slimmed down and solid Chris “The Nightmare” Arreola, who is on target to enter the Home Depot Center boxing ring on Saturday night, May 14 in Carson, CA at his lowest weight in four years. “Right now I’m training very hard,” said the former #1-ranked world contender about his upcoming 10-round fight with Nagy Aguilera (16-5, 11 KOs) as the co-featured bout underneath the Super Six World Boxing Classic semi-final contest between WBA Super Middleweight Champion Andre Ward and Arthur Abraham. “I’m looking more to showing than talking; at least until after the fight,” said the normally ‘sound bite’ machine who ballooned up to a career high of 263 pounds in 2009.
The “re-dedication of Arreola” started when he and his longtime trainer Henry Ramirez trekked down to the Houston, TX training center run by Ronnie Shields to prepare for an ESPN2 main event on January 28, 2011. For the first time in eight fights, Arreola came in under 250-pounds for that bout. And now Arreola is back in Riverside hard at work with Ramirez for his upcoming bout. So what was Arreola’s motivation for re-dedicating himself? “I hate to lose,” he said.
By Rey Colón -The Sport Press
Super bantamweight contender Jonathan “Polvo” Oquendo will not see action this Friday in the second edition of the new PR Best boxing series “A Puño Limpio”, to be held in the Pedrin Zorrilla Coliseum in Hato Rey, Puerto Rico. Oquendo (20-2, 13 KOs) was to defend his NABO belt against Thomas “KO” Snow (14-1, 9 KOs), but had to pull out due to an ankle injury. Former amateur world flyweight champion McWilliams Arroyo (7-1, 6 KOs) will be the new headliner on the WAPA 2/WAPA America telecast.
Heavyweight contender Juan Carlos Gomez has been forced to withdraw from Saturday’s Prizefighter International Heavyweights tournament in London due to visa issues. He will be be replaced by Lucian Bot. It was also announced that Kerston ‘Warrior’ Manswell will replace Fres Oquendo.
Revised Prizefighter International Heavyweights Draw
Quarter-final one: Mike Perez vs Kerston Manswell
Quarter-final two: Kevin Johnson vs Gregory Tony
Quarter-final three: Michael Sprott vs Tye Fields
Quarter-final four: Lucian Bot vs Konstantin Airich
Fightnews spoke Shane Mosley (46-6-1, 39 KOs) trainer Nazim Richardson prior to his departure for Las Vegas, Nevada along with the rest of team Mosley. Mosley will fight Manny Pacquiao (52-3-2, 38 KOs) this Saturday May 7 at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas. Richardson said he wouldn’t be suprised at all if Pacquiao was looking to outbox Mosley instead of seeking out a slugfest. Should that be the case Richardson says he has Mosley well prepared.
“People should not automatically think that Pacquiao will just come straight at Shane and go toe to toe,” said Richardson. “Honestly I can see Pacquiao using a lot of movement against Shane and I have a gameplan in place for that should he do so. A lot of people don’t understand how hard of a puncher Shane Mosley is. So much so that he changes opponents original strategies once he hits them clean. A prime example was the Mosley-Miguel Cotto fight. Cotto started out aggressive but once he was hit solid he switched to boxing. It would really be impressive if Shane was able to beat Pacquiao by decision. Pacquiao because of his aggressive nature leaves openings where a knockout could present itself but to beat him by decision means you would have to control him for the better part of 12 rounds.”
By Robert Coster
IBF President Daryl Peoples, accompanied by IBF PR Director Jeannette Salazar and USBA Judge Joe Garcia, paid a visit over the weekend to the Dominican Republic where they witnessed a local boxing card. Fightnews sat down with Peoples to discuss the reasons behind his trip to the Caribbean island and the future plans of the IBF in the region. (more…)
All contents copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 by Freitag Marketing Services, LLC. The information on this site cannot be reused without written permission.