email@example.com Continuously updated all day, every day!
Photos: Josh Jordan/PBC In an IBF super middleweight eliminator, Jose "Bolivita" Uzcategui (24-1, 20 KOs) scored a spectacular two-round annihilation of previously unbeaten ...
- Linares, Cano make weight
- Barby-Taborda rematch Saturday
- Kalenga-Bolonti is signed for Monte Carlo
- Danny O’Connor Gets His Rematch
- Boxing back in Green Bay tonight
- Alvarez Ready For Statement-Making Season
- Illinois Boxing Hall of Fame Update
- Weights from Kissimmee, Florida
- Results from Rochester, NY
- Trainer Joel Diaz discusses new union with Ruslan Provodnikov
- Murat agrees to face Beterbiev in IBF eliminator
and make sure you're getting the latest updates.
By Jeffrey Pamungkas at ringside
Undefeated longtime WBA featherweight world champion Chris John (44-0-2, 22 KOs) retained his title on Sunday with a twelve round unanimous decision over Fernando David Saucedo (38-5-3, 1 KO) at the Indoor Tennis Stadium in Jakarta, Indonesia. There were no knockdowns in the bout that John won by scores of 119-109, 119-109 and 120-108.
In the co-feature, featherweight Daud Yordan (27-1, 20 KOs) needed just 19 seconds to destroy Damian David Marchiano (16-7-1, 6 KOs) in a clash for the interim WBO Asia Pacific featherweight title.
Former world champion and season two runner-up in the TV reality series “The Contender” Steve Forbes (34-8, 10 KOs) returns to the ring December 17th in Indiana. Forbes will take on veteran Roberto Valenzuela. Valenzuela has fought the who’s who in boxing and has at least 112 professional bouts to his credit. Emmanuel Augustus was being considered as the original opponent for Forbes but it will now be Valenzuela. The eight round welterweight main event bout will take place at the Civic Center in Hammond, Indiana with Mike Leanardi (People’s Champ Boxing) promoting.
Octagonside by Andreas Hale & Anthony Springer Jr.
Photos by Chris Cozzone
The mark of a good fighter is finding a way to win after the original game plan is proven to be a failure.
Jonathan Brookins dug deep and put on a dominant performance on the canvas, defeating fellow teammate Michael Johnson to become season twelve’s Ultimate Fighter. . . . Click here for more
Postfight presser by Andreas Hale
Photos by Chris Cozzone
Two years ago, Jonathan Brookins was TKOed by an up and coming fighter named Jose Aldo who would go on to become one of the greatest fighters in the world today. The loss has been the bane of Brookins existence since. Upon entering The Ultimate Fighter 12 house, Brookins was known as the guy who Aldo knocked out. But on December 4th 2010, he is now known as the guy who won The Ultimate Fighter as he endured a first round storm to earn a unanimous decision victory over Michael Johnson . . . Click here for more
Ringside report by Gerardo Martinez
Photos by Jose Leon Castillo III
Boom. Boom. Boom.
By the time the eighth round came around, that’s all that could be heard – Holly Holm’s repeatedly socking it to New York’s Ann Marie Saccurato. That is, before their 10-round rematch was cut short after Saccurato’s trainer signaled Referee Rocky Burke to end the slaughter at :51 of round eight . . . Click here for more
By Robert Coster
Russian boxing powerhouse German Titov Promotions announced that it has signed to a promotional contract 22-year-old Dominican Olympian Gilbert Lennin Castillo (3-0, 2 KOs) who fights in the light heavyweight class. Castillo was an amateur standout who represented his country to the 2008 Olympic Games in China. Titov had this to say about his new recruit, “Castillo is a young and talented boxer. He was an excellent amateur and I have no doubt whatsoever that he will perform very well as a pro.” Titov Promotions has another Dominican star in its ranks, 2008 Olympic junior welterweight gold medalist Felix Diaz. Titov traveled to the Dominican Republic to watch young Castillo in action on a boxing card last Monday and was positively impressed by the young man. Castillo will probably be fighting on another card in the Dominican Republic on December 19th. “We plan to keep Gilbert busy and move him up rapidly,” commented Titov.
European heavyweight champion Alexander Dimitrenko has been released from the Helios Klinik in Schwerin, Germany after undergoing a battery of tests, including a CT scan. “I’m doing better again,” he said today. “I’m still waiting on some results and a clinic in Hamburg will do more tests tomorrow. I hope that we’ll know what happened. This is something I’ve never experienced before. I apologize to the fans in the arena and watching on television, but I hope I’m healthy again quickly and can take this fight. I would like to defend my title against Sosnowski as soon as possible.” Dimitrenko’s fight with Albert Sosnowski was cancelled after Dimitrenko feinted in his dressing room. Universum has announced that Dimitrenko is still champion and the bout will be rescheduled.
Barbados super lightweight prospect and 22-year-old Miguel “Hands of Stone” Antoine added another KO victory to his unblemished record to take his wins to 13 in as many fights. Young Antoine who turns 23 on February 4th, 2011 started slowly as he tried to figure out the award southpaw style of his Guyanese opponent Shawn Pile. Antoine sent Pile to the canvas early in the second round with a series of accurate combinations. Pile visited the canvas two more times in the third round, the last was a result of a well placed right uppercut. Referee Eon Jardine had seen enough and wisely saved Pile from further punishment. Antoine is a former WBC CABOFE super lightweight champion who was stripped of his title after he was refused permission by the local Barbados commission to defend during the 2010 AIBA women’s world championships. Antoine, who is trained by top local promoter Sam Layne is the brightest young prospect coming out of the Caribbean.
By Doug Gibson at ringside
In an tough eight-round fight in Ogden’s Golden Spike Arena Saturday night, Salt Lake City’s Gary Gomez took a close decision of Ogden’s Valente Tinajero to win the Utah Cruiserweight championship. It was an exciting fight that matched Tinajero’s aggressiveness with Gomez’s ring savvy. The veteran Gomez, 19-11-2, was pressed every round by Tinajero, 8-3, who frequently scored hard right hands. However, Gomez was able to counterpunch well against Tinajero, scoring to the body often. The final round was an exciting slugfest, as both fighters tried hard to end on top. In the end, the judges favored Gomez’ ring generalship. This reporter scored the fight a draw, 76-76.
In a preliminary bout, veteran Ogden heavyweight Billy Zumbrun, 24-12-1, scored a very easy second round knockout over woefully out of shape Tulsa, Okla., trial horse Jason Nicholson, 18-26-2. Zumbrun floored Nicholson three times before the fight was stopped.
In other fights, middleweight Todd Willingham scored a four round decision over Will Walton and lightweight Cesar Romero stopped Jason Hayes after three rounds.
By Pepe Rodriguez/WBC
Photos by Alma Montiel/WBC
WBC silver super welterweight titleholder Saul Alvarez (35-0-1, 26 KOs) maintained his unbeaten record with a one-sided twelve round unanimous decision over savvy veteran Lovemore N’Dou (48-12-2, 31 KOs) on Saturday night at the Parque De Biesbol Beto Avila in Veracruz, Mexico. Scores were 119-109, 120-108 and 120-108 for Canelo.
Former WBO super bantamweight champion Daniel Ponce De Leon improved his record to 41-2 with 34 KOs with a seventh round TKO over Sergio Manuel Medina (35-4, 20 KOs).
In another notable fight, featherweight Victor “El Vikingo” Terrazas (28-2-1, 16 KOs) won by TKO in the second round against Filomeno Jaramillo (6-2, 2 KOs). Click here for more photos…
Octagonside by Andreas Hale & Anthony Springer, Jr.
Photos by Chris Cozzone
In the main event of the evening lightweight Jonathan Brookins was crowned as the new Ultimate Fighter Season 12 champion after defeating Michael Johnson via unanimous decision. In round one Johnson had the fight firmly in his grasp as he dropped Brookins repeatedly with hard, crisp combinations. Round two saw Brookins return to his wrestling and control his opponent from the top position for most of the period. The final round saw Johnson score with some blows, but the wrestling of Brookins took over again and he remained in control as time ticked away. Scorecards all read the same, 29-28.
Despite both being deducted points for blows to the back of the head, Stephan Bonnar defeated Igor Pokrajac via unanimous decision in the evening’s light heavyweight co-feature. Scorecards all read the same, 29-26. (more…)
Jonathan Victor Barros of Argentina (31-1-1, 18 KOs) defeated Irving Berry of Panama (18-2-2, 9 KOs) to win the vacant WBA world featherweight title. The bout was fairly close for he first three rounds but Barros broke through at the end of round four stunning the southpaw Berry with a straight right. Round five saw Barros keeping up the pressure and hurting Berry with some more powershots upstairs. A straight right hand to the chin of Berry by Barros in round seven had him staggering and Raul Caiz Jr. had seen enough and stopped the fight. The bout took place at the Polideportivo Vicente Polimeni, in Las Heras, Mendoza, Argentina with Osvaldo Rivero promoting the event.
By Francisco Salazar and Felipe Leon at ringside
Photo by Chris Farina/Top Rank
In a great fight, WBC lightweight champion Humberto Soto (54-7-2, 32 KOs) barely retained his title with a hard fought unanimous decision over Urbano Antillon (28-2, 20 KOs) in front of a crowd of 3,253 at the Honda Center in Anaheim, California. The bout was a total war with both fighters trading bombs throughout. Whenever the champion’s precise punching gave him the edge, Antillon’s fighter’s heart would pull him back into the fight. Referee Ray Corona deducted a point from Antillon in round five for a low blow and that ended up costing him a draw. Scores were 114-113, 115-112, 114-113, all for Soto.
Two-division world champion Nonito Donaire (25-1, 17 KOs) said he would make a statement on Saturday night and that’s just what he did. “The Filipino Flash” destroyed former WBA bantamweight champion Wladimir Sidorenko (22-3-2, 7 KOs) to set up a February 19 clash with WBC bantamweight champion Fernando Montiel. After staggering Sidorenko early, Donaire dropped him with a left/right combination at the end of round one. Donaire scored another knockdown with a big left hand in round three and put the former champion down for the count in round four. Time was 1:48.
Undefeated lightweight contender Mikey Garcia (24-0, 20 KOs) scored his most impressive win to date, knocking out former world title challenger Olivier Lontchi (18-2-2, 8 KOs) in round five. Garcia dropped Lontchi with a right to the head then put him down for the count with his follow up barrage. Time was 1:30.
Middleweight contender Pawel Wolak (28-1, 18 KOs), who was originally slated to fight Julio Cesar Chavez Jr. in the main event before Chavez pulled out with the flu, survived a rocky start against late sub Jose Pinzon (19-2-1, 13 KOs) but came through with a seventh round TKO. Wolak was knocked down and badly hurt in round two, but survived Pinzon’s follow-up attack and turned the fight around in the following rounds, finally putting Pinzon out on his feet in round seven. Time was 2:24. Click here for more photos…
Welterweight Ayi Bruce (18-3, 12 KOs) won a ten round majority decision over Shamone Alvarez (21-3, 12 KOs) in a clash for the vacant IBA welterweight world championship on Saturday night at at Ballys in Atlantic City. Scores were 95-95, 95-94, 97-93.
Unbeaten welterweight Raymond “Tito” Serrano (14-0, 7 KOs) scored a fifth round KO over Geoffrey Spruiell (8-10, 2 KOs). Serrano floored Spruiell twice in round one, and put him down for the count :27 into round five.
Popular light heavyweight Chuck “The Professor” Mussachio (17-1-2, 5 KOs) dominated Theo Kruger (10-11-2, 3 KOs) over eight rounds en route to a unanimous decision. Scores were 79-73, 80-72, 80-72.
Middleweight Isiah Seldon (3-0), the son of former WBA Heavyweight champion Bruce Seldon, won a four round majority decision over Todd Eriksson by scores of 38-38, 39-36, 39-36.
By Ray Wheatley — World of Boxing
IBF #6, WBA #11 super middleweight Les Sherrington (26-5, 17 KOs) clearly outscored Nader Hamdan (42-8-1, 18 KOs) over twelve rounds at the Gold Coast Convention Center, Broadbeach, Queensland, Australia on Saturday. Sherrington used accurate left jabs to pile up the points and in round twelve connected with hard combinations that had Hamdan in trouble. Scores Wally Lewis 119-110, Steve Marshall 117-112, Cyril Cairns 118-110. (more…)
“I was there just after he collapsed in the dressing room,” said promoter Klaus-Peter Kohl. “He lay motionless on the ground. There are signs of food poisoning because he was very cramped. He said repeatedly that he wants to fight, but we couldn’t let that happen.”
Ring physician Dr. Christopher Goetz said “He had a very low blood pressure and was hyperventilating. His hands were clenched tight. Even though his condition stabilized, there was no chance that he could step into the ring. It’s necessary that he now go to the hospital to find out the cause of this condition.”
Dimitrenko was taken at 11:45PM to the Helios Kliniken in Schwerin for evaluation.
By Karl Freitag
Photos: Eroll Popova
The fight between European heavyweight champion Alexander Dimitrenko and Albert Sosnowski on Saturday night at the Sport und Kongresshalle in Schwerin, Germany was shockingly cancelled just before fight time after Dimitrenko feinted in his dressing room. Dimitrenko was taken from the arena to the hospital on a stretcher. click here for a full report and more photos
WBO super featherweight champion Ricky Burns (30-2, 7 KOs) retained his title with a twelve round unanimous decision over Andreas Evensen (13-2, 5 KOs) on Saturday night at Braehead Arena in Glasgow, Scotland. In his first title defense, Burns dropped Evensen in round one and was in command all the way. Scores were 119-108, 119-108, 118-109.
In an upset, super featherweight Paul Appleby (16-2, 11 KOs) lost a split decision to Joseph Laryea (14-4, 11 KOs) in a bout for the vacant WBO Inter-Continental super featherweight title. Appleby was a 8 to 1 favorite to win this fight. He hurt Laryea early to the body but the African weathered the storm and dominated with his jabs keeping Appleby at a distance.
Former world title challenger Alex Arthur (29-3, 20 KOs) outpointed journeyman Jay Morris (13-17-1, 4 KOs) over eight by an 80-72 score.
Below is information regarding Mrs. Henrietta King’s South Florida memorial service and funeral in Cleveland:
Tuesday, December 7 at 2 p.m.
St. John Missionary Baptist Church
900 North Seacrest Blvd.
Boynton Beach, Florida 33435
(East of I-95 between Boynton Beach Blvd. & Gateway Blvd.)
Arrangements by: James C. Boyd Funeral Home
2324 NW 6th St.
Ft. Lauderale Florida 33311
Saturday, December 11
10 a.m. – Family Hour and Viewing
11 a.m. – Funeral Service
Olivet Institutional Baptist Church
8712 Quincy Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio 44128
Arrangements by: E. F. Boyd & Son Funeral Home
25900 Emery Road
Warrensville Heights, Ohio 44128
By Francisco Salazar at ringside
Cruiserweight Ed Perry had a lot to say about Lateef Kayode’s punching power after their scheduled 10 round Cruiserweight bout. “That’s the most power I’ve ever felt clean. I’ve been hit harder, but that was pretty clean.” The soft-spoken Kayode may not be as talkative, but his words do have an effect just like his punches. “I hit him in a good spot.” (more…)
By Rick Scharmberg at ringside
Dionisio “Mr. Nocaut” Miranda (21-6-2, 18 KOs) took home the vacant WBC Continental Americas middleweight title with a twelve round split decision over world-rated Lajuan “Simply Marvelous” Simon (23-3-2, 12 KOs) last night at Dover Downs Hotel & Casino in Dover, Delaware. Miranda mixed hard body shots, jabs, and his trademark power shots to overcome Simon’s pressure, and revitalize his career in the process. The scores were 116-112 and 115-113 for Miranda and 115-114 for Simon. Dover Downs Hotel & Casino was the promoter, and Nick Tiberi matched the impressive eight-bout card. (more…)
By: Jose E. Santiago
Photos: Ozzie Santiago
Last night at the Georgia World Congress Center in Atlanta GA, Sports Fan Properties presented the Big Rock 4. The main attraction of the night was Paul “The Truth” Delgado (25-9-1, 4 KOs) vs. Chris “The Gentleman” Gray (13-13, 1 KO) for the vacant IBF/USBA Southern Region belt scheduled for ten. Although Delgado won the fight, he along with all his supporters was impressed with the craftiness and determination Gray displayed throughout. (more…)
By Phil Doherty
Photos: Sam Cohen
Last night’s edition of the Badia Spices Friday Night Fight series at the Magic City Casino in Miami showcased seven dynamic Cuban prospects. In a card billed as “Cuba vs. the World” the Cuban fighters with the unbelievable amateur backgrounds dominated. All seven won their bouts in impressive fashion; obliterating four opponents by 1st round stoppage. (more…)
Ringside report & photos by Felipe Leon
It is a common occurrence in Mexico that the 25th of December, Christmas, is celebrated with a vast array of fireworks. Zanfer Promotions, Mexico’s leading promoter, began its celebration early last night at Tijuana, MX’s Municipal Auditorium with “Duelo de Campeones (Champion’s Duel)” in which upsets, bloody wars and knockouts were the order of the day . . . Click here for more
By Alexey “Oscar” Potapov at ringside
New IBO light middleweight champion Zaurbek Baysangurov (25-1, 19 KOs) scored a brutal twelfth round TKO over Colombian power puncher Richard Gutierrez (26-5-1, 16 KOs) on Saturday night at the Ice Palace “Terminal” in Brovari, Ukraine. In the fourth round, Gutierrez scored a flash knockdown, but Bajsangurov was quickly recovered and captured the initiative. After the sixth round, the fight became a real war. Baysangurov took over in the tenth round and in the twelfth round the Russian administered a brutal beating to Gutierrez forcing the referee to stop the fight. Watching the fight from ringside were President of the Chechen Republic Ramzan Kadyrov and WBC heavyweight champion Vitali Klitschko.
Former IBO Inter-Continental cruiserweight champion Vitaliy Rusal (27-2, 19 KOs) surprisingly lost a unanimous decision to unheralded Oleksandr Cherviak (9-1, 1 KOs). Oleksandr shocked Rusal with constant pressure and very aggressive attacks. Scores were 78-75 (twice) and 78-74. Fightnews.com scored it 78-74 for Cherviak. (more…)
By Jeffrey Pamungkas
Photos: Jeff Pamungkas
Undefeated longtime WBA featherweight world champion Chris John (43-0-2, 22 KOs) and Fernando David Saucedo (38-4-3, 1 KO) made weight for their world championship fight on Sunday at the Indoor Tennis Stadium in Jakarta, Indonesia. John weighed 56.9 kgs (125.4 lbs) and Saucedo weighed 56.7 kgs (125 lbs).
In the co-feature, featherweights Daud Yordan (26-1, 20 KOs) and Damian David Marchiano (16-6-1, 6 KOs) meet for the interim WBO Asia Pacific featherweight title. Yordan weighed 56.9 kgs (125.4 lbs) while Marchiano scaled in at 57.0 kgs (125.7 lbs).
An aggressive Holly Holm (29-1-3, 9 KOs) punched her way to an eighth round TKO victory over Ann Marie Saccurato (15-4, 6 KOs), Friday night at Route 66 Casino Hotel west of Albuquerque. Unlike the rematch three years ago, that saw Holm win a decision, the local favorite pushed for a knockout win, in defending her IBA jr. welterweight title. In the co-main, Chevelle Hallback (28-6, 11 KOs) had to settle for a split decision win over Albuquerque’s Victoria Cisneros (5-11-2, 1 KO). Scores were 77-75 Cisneros and 77-75, 78-74 Hallback. On the undercard: Vincent “Li’l Man” Mirabal (7-0, 1 KO) remained undefeated with a unanimous decision over tough Joel Vargas (3-2-1, 3 KOs), of Dodge City, Kan. Scores were 60-54 twice and 58-56. Albuquerque strawweight Jodie Esquibel (6-5-1, 2 KOs) broke her losing streak with a six-round unanimous decision over Savanna Hill (7-7, 4 KOs), of Little Rock, Ark. Espanola debuter Antonio Martinez (1-0, 1 KO) destroyed debuting Michael Montalbano (0-1) for a first round TKO; Manny Thompson (1-0, 1 KO), of Wichita, Kan., TKO’d unwon Albuquerquean Christian Bruffy-Holmes (0-2) in round one.
Story by Anthony Springer, Jr.
If there were no Stephan Bonnar, it’s safe to say that there’d be no UFC.
The season one Ultimate Fighter runner up’s now epic three round war with eventual winner Forrest Griffin is often credited by UFC president Dana White as the bout that saved the company from total extinction. Not only was Bonnar also awarded a six figure contract with the organization for his efforts; White has also gone on record saying Bonnar will be with the company forever . . . Click here for more
For more info on TUF Finale: Bonnar vs. Pokrajac, go to www.ufc.com
By Karl Freitag
Tonight two-division world champion Nonito Donaire (24-1, 16 KOs) risks an upcoming shot at WBC bantamweight champion Fernando Montiel in a dangerous 12-round pay-per-view battle against former longtime WBA bantamweight champion Wladimir Sidorenko (22-2-2, 7 KOs) at the Honda Center in Anaheim, Calif. Meanwhile, Montiel (43-2-2, 33 KOs) must do his part next week Eduardo Garcia (21-5-1, 9 KOs) next week in Torreon, Mexico. If both Donaire and Montiel are victorious, they have a February 19 showdown in Las Vegas already lined up.
Also, WBC lightweight champion Humberto Soto (53-7-2, 32 KOs) is on a mission to show the world that he, and not countryman Juan Manuel Marquez, is the best lightweight in the world. Soto is set to defend against Urbano Antillon (28-1, 20 KOs). (more…)
Photos: Tom Casino / SHOWTIME
The knockout streak lives on for Lateef “Power” Kayode, the Hollywood cruiserweight from Nigeria who registered a sixth-round knockout for the 14th consecutive fight on ShoBox: The New Generation on SHOWTIME® Friday night from Chumash Casino Resort. In the co-feature, former Cuban Olympian Luis “La Estrella” Franco remained undefeated moving his record to 8-0 (5 KOs) with a disqualification (low blows) win over Eric “Outlaw” Hunter at 2:34 of the eighth round. (more…)
By Phil Doherty at ringside
Friday night’s Pugilistic Promotions card boasted the title “Cuba vs. the World” in a packed card of former Cuban amateur standouts. All 7 Cuban exiles on the card won their contests in stunning fashion by scoring 4 first round stoppages. Future bouts may require the alternate title “Who in the World wants to fight vs. Cuba?” as many of these fighters seem well ahead of the curve.
The main event tripleheader saw light heavyweight Yordanis Despaigne (8-0, 4 KOs) batter feisty Mexican opponent Juan Jose Ruiz over 6 rounds to earn an easy unanimous decision victory. Despaigne’s combination punching had Ruiz literally running from the opening bell, yet he did manage to finish the fight. All 3 judges scored it 60-54 for the Cuban. (more…)
By Ray Wheatley — World of Boxing
IBO welterweight champion Lovemore “Black Panther” Ndou (48-11-2, 31KO’s) is primed to upset red hot favorite Saul “Canelo” Alvarez (34-0-1, 26 KOs) when they clash over twelve rounds in Estadio Beto Alvila, Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico on Saturday with the WBC Silver light middleweight title up for grabs. “Alvarez has not boxed any name fighters, only a burnt-out Carlos Baldomir who I battered in a sparring session recently.” said Ndou. ” I have got a great trainer in Harold Volbrecht in my corner and also Australia’s Grantlee Kieza who was in the corner of Jeff Fenech, Jeff Harding and Joe Bugner in several of there big fights.” Ndou added. ” I must thank Mike Marchionte for getting this fight for me. I am sure I will be victorious on Saturday and a win over Alvarez which will help get me in the mix to fight big name opponents.” (more…)
Miguel Cotto, Antonio Margarito and Juan Manuel Lopez will be at ringside at Top Rank’s “In Harm’s Way” PPV at the Honda Center on Saturday night.
Congratulations to Fightnews.com photographer Big Joe Miranda, who was named “Photographer of the Year” by the WBC Legends of Boxing Museum at American Sports University in San Bernardino, California.
It was an expensive case of the flu for Julio Ceasr Chavez Jr., who had to pull out of his PPV clash with Pawel Wolak. Junior is said to have forfeit a $775,000 purse for the bout.
Welterweight Paul Delgado (25-9-1, 4 KOs) won a ten round majority decision over Chris Gray (13-13, 1 KO) on Friday night at the Georgia World Congress Center in Atlanta. With the win, Delgado claimed the vacant IBF/USBA Southern Region belt. Scores were 97-93 twice and 95-95.
All contents copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 by Freitag Marketing Services, LLC. The information on this site cannot be reused without written permission.